Thursday, January 9, 2014

Fuse bits for AVR ATMega8 Ponyprog

It is about the question of how the fuse bits must be set in most cases.

And here it is, the collection of the default settings most frequently used the fuse bits for ATmega8.
Fuse bits for AVR ATMega8 Ponyprog

First, verify with Datasheets, because some of Atmega are made for only lower frequency response.
Like ATMega8L will works till 8Mhz frequency.

I am no responsible for any loss or IC damage, only one wrong fuse bit will make non responsive ic. That may be recover by fusebit doctor.

1 MHz internal RC Oscillator


Low Fuse


  • 11100001
  • Brown-out detection level at VCC = 2.7 V; [BODLEVEL = 1]
  • Int. RC Osc. 1 MHz start-up time: 6 CK + 64 ms; [CHSEL = 0001 SUT = 10]; defaultValue


High Fuse


  • 11011001
  • Serial program downloading (SPI) enabled; [SPIEN = 0]
  • Boot Flash section size = 1024 words start address = $ 0C00 boat; [BOOTSZ = 00]; defaultValue

Lockbits


  • 11111111
  • Mode 1: No memory lock features enabled
  • Application Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Application Section
  • Boot Loader Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Boot Loader Section

8 MHz internal RC Oscillator


Low Fuse


  • 11100100
  • Brown-out detection level at VCC = 2.7 V; [BODLEVEL = 1]
  • Int. RC Osc. 8 MHz start-up time: 6 CK + 64 ms; [CKSEL = 0100 SUT = 10]

High Fuse


  • 11011001
  • Serial program downloading (SPI) enabled; [SPIEN = 0]
  • Boot Flash section size = 1024 words start address = $ 0C00 boat; [BOOTSZ = 00]; defaultValue

Lockbits


  • 11111111
  • Mode 1: No memory lock features enabled
  • Application Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Application Section
  • Boot Loader Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Boot Loader Section

3-8 Mhz external crystal


Low Fuse


  • 11111111
  • Brown-out detection level at VCC = 2.7 V; [BODLEVEL = 1]
  • . External Crystal / Resonator High Freq, Start-up time: 16K CK + 64 ms; [CKSEL = 1111 SUT = 11]

High Fuse


  • 11011001
  • Serial program downloading (SPI) enabled; [SPIEN = 0]
  • Boot Flash section size = 1024 words start address = $ 0C00 boat; [BOOTSZ = 00]; defaultValue

Lockbits


  • 11111111
  • Mode 1: No memory lock features enabled
  • Application Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Application Section
  • Boot Loader Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Boot Loader Section

8-16 Mhz external crystal

Low Fuse


  • 11111111
  • Brown-out detection level at VCC = 2.7 V; [BODLEVEL = 1]
  • . External Crystal / Resonator High Freq, Start-up time: 16K CK + 64 ms; [CKSEL = 1111 SUT = 11]
High Fuse


  • 11001001
  • Serial program downloading (SPI) enabled; [SPIEN = 0]
  • Boot Flash section size = 1024 words start address = $ 0C00 boat; [BOOTSZ = 00]; defaultValue
  • CKOPT fuse (operation dependent of CKSEL fuses); [CKOPT = 0]

Lockbits


  • 11111111
  • Mode 1: No memory lock features enabled
  • Application Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Application Section
  • Boot Loader Protection Mode 1: No lock on SPM and LPM in Boot Loader Section


PonyProg

1 MHz internal RC Oscillator

Lockbits


  • 11111111

High Fuse


  • 11011001
  • SPIEN
  • BOOTSZ1
  • BOOTSZ0

Low Fuse


  • 11100001
  • SUT0
  • CKSEL3
  • CKSEL2
  • CHSEL1

8 MHz internal RC Oscillator

Lockbits

  • 11111111
High Fuse

  • 11011001
  • SPIEN
  • BOOTSZ1
  • BOOTSZ0
Low Fuse

  • 11100100
  • SUT0
  • CKSEL3
  • CKSEL1
  • CHSEL0

8-16 Mhz external crystal



Lockbits

  • 11111111
High Fuse

  • 11001001
  • SPIEN
  • CKOPT
  • BOOTSZ1
  • BOOTSZ0
Low Fuse

  • 11111111


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Wednesday, June 19, 2013

Data acquisition (DAQ) system - realtime multi channel - hardware and software

Data acquisition (DAQ) system - realtime multi channel - hardware and software

Purpose of this system is acquiring multiple data from exist sensing system which is transmitting data on serial port. This hardware is for two channel RS232 data receiving and on request base sending this data on physical serial port in real-time operation. Like when user will send 1 on serial port this system will reply sensing data as on channel 1 and as well as when user will transmit 2 on serial port system will reply data as on second channel. We can also extend channels up to 12 channels. USB communication is also possible with PL232 chip which is converting serial data into USB virtual serial port.

Firmware part is mainly on software base serial data reading and sending it to hardware serial port. USB communication can be also programed by using some bootloder firmware.

Software was done in visual basic with reporting tool, this one is for label printing but as on custom need we can make it as per requirements. Saving data in mdb database with date stamp, reporting and printing feature is also there.

Schematic, PCB diagram and Firmware is available on request basis. You can test this system by using terminal with this settings, Com Port: As hardware is connected | Baud Rate: 9600 | Data Bits: 8 | Parity: None | Stop Bits: 1 | Handshaking : None

Your suggestions are valuable for me.

Hardware Configuration:
 - ATMega 8 with internal 8 MHz Oscillator
 - Max232 for TTL to RS-232 Communication
 - PL232 if we are using USB communication
 - Sensing Board

User Operations:
 - Custom made software to gathering data.
 - User can add, edit and delete data.
 - Printing options.

Contact me:
 - arshad.pathan(at)gmail.com

Thanks for your attention.

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Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Quran aur Hum - Kaha Suna Maaf

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Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Screen Printing Technique Professional PCB Production at home

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Monday, June 25, 2012

organic farming : My collection links : india

organic farming : My collection links


eOrganic authors:
Christine D. Smart, Cornell University
Holly W. Lange, Cornell University

Introduction

Black rot, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), is a significant disease of cabbage and other crucifer crops worldwide. The disease was first described in New York on turnips in 1893, and has been a common problem for growers for over 100 years. The pathogen thrives in warm, wet weather, spreading from plant to plant by splashing water, wind blown water droplets, and by workers or animals moving from infected fields to healthy fields. Xcc can spread rapidly during transplant production in greenhouses or seed beds, and could be spreading long before any symptoms are observed. The bacterium can infest seed, infecting young seedlings as they emerge. The pathogen can also survive in cruciferous weeds, such as yellow rocket, Shepherd’s purse, and wild mustard, as well as in crop debris in the field.

Figure 1. The cabbage above shows typical black rot symptoms, with V-shaped lesions moving into the leaf from the leaf margin. Photo credit: Chris Smart, Cornell University.

Figure 2. Transplants with black rot symptoms are shown above. While these plants are clearly diseased, it is important to remember that bacteria can be invading plants even if no symptoms are observed. Photo credit: Holly Lange, Cornell University.

Susceptible Crops

All crucifer crops are susceptible to black rot, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kale, radish, turnip, mustard, rutabaga, watercress, and arugula.

Figure 3. The cabbage field on the left has been destroyed by the black rot pathogen. Portions of the field on the right have been overtaken by cruciferous weeds which can serve as a source of inoculum. Photo credit: (left) Chris Smart, Cornell University; (right) Julie Kikkert, Cornell University .

Symptoms and Biology

Symptoms of black rot generally begin with yellowing at the leaf margin, which expands into the characteristic "V"-shaped lesion. The bacterium commonly enters the plant through the hydathode, or water pore, on the margin of the leaf; however, damage to leaves due to insect feeding, hail, or mechanical injury can also enable pathogen entry. The bacterial infection becomes systemic, meaning that the bacterium can enter the veins of the plant and spread into the cabbage head, which can lead to serious losses in storage. Blackening of the vascular tissue is typical in severe infections.

Figure 4. Hydathodes (or pores) on the margin of this cabbage leaf (left) exude plant sap or guttation droplets early in the morning. These hydathodes are the most common entry method for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campstris (which causes black rot). The leaf on the right is showing symptoms of black rot, with the lesion starting at the location of insect damage. Photo credits: Holly Lange, Cornell University.

Figure 5. Internal vein blackening caused by the black rot pathogen. This head would rot completely during storage. Photo credit: Holly Lange, Cornell University.

Prevention

Prevention is the best line of defense and is especially important in organic production. There are three preventative measures that can reduce the risk of a black rot outbreak:
  • Start with clean seed – It is known that the bacterium that causes black rot can survive on and in seed. Hot water treatment can be used to destroy the bacteria that may be infesting your seed. If you have purchased seed that has NOT been hot water treated, you can treat the seed yourself, but it is critical to do it correctly. For cabbage and Brussels sprouts, soak seed for 25 minutes in 122°F water; for Chinese cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collard, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga or turnip, soak for 20 minutes in 122°F water. Mustards, watercress and radish are more susceptible to heat damage, and should be soaked for 15 minutes in 122°F water. There is an excellent fact sheet on hot water treatment of seed at http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/3000/pdf/3086.pdf . For additional information, see the eOrganic article Keys to Disease Management in Organic Seed Crops. Treat a small number of seeds the first time to ensure that the treatment is not reducing seed germination.
  • Use clean transplants – If you are growing your own transplants, make sure that the greenhouse has been cleaned well prior to starting transplants—even if you had no disease last year! Bacteria have a remarkable way of surviving in weeds, organic matter, or nooks and crannies, so if possible, get rid of all weeds, use new or disinfected flats, and disinfect benches and tools prior to the start of a new season. Be sure to keep foliage as dry as possible, and do not brush or trim wet plants. Use pathogen-freeorganic starting mix, and if you are adding compost, be certain that no diseased plant matter was used.
  • Rotate with non-crucifers – Because the black rot bacterium can survive in debris in the soil, it is important to rotate away from crucifer crops for a minimum of three years.

Reducing Disease Risk during the Growing Season

Anything that can be done to reduce leaf wetness and water splash will help reduce disease spread. This includes watering plants in the morning so that leaves dry prior to sunset, maintaining your irrigation system to reduce the likelihood of ponding, increasing spacing between plants, and orienting rows with prevailing winds to maximize air flow and drying.

Figure 6. Cabbage and cauliflower plants at this production facility are watered early in the morning so leaves will dry quickly. Photo credit: Chris Smart, Cornell University.

Management Strategies

As with most bacterial pathogens, managment can be very difficult when the weather is conducive to disease. Once a plant is infected, there is no rescue treatment since the infection is systemic. Copper-based products are effective in reducing spread from infected to healthy plants.
NOTE: Before applying ANY pest control product, be sure to read and understand the safety precautions and application restrictions, and make sure that the brand name product is listed in your Organic System Plan and approved by your certifier. For more information see the eOrganic article Can I Use this Product for Disease Management on my Organic Farm?
Although black rot can be severe, following the prevention strategies described above will reduce the risk of this disease. Although the pathogen can survive on farms, we know that this is not the most common source of inoculum on farms that use a minimum three year rotation; instead, the pathogen is most commonly brought onto farms on seed or plants. In New York, new strains of the pathogen enter the state each year. Thus, planting only clean seed and disease-free transplants are the most important management practices in regions with cold winters. In locations with mild winter temperatures, the risk of maintaining the pathogen on farms is greater.

References and Citations

  • McGrath, M. T. 1994. Black rot of crucifers. Fact Sheet page 730.40. Cooperative Extension of New York State, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Available online at:http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/factsheets/Crucifers_BR.htm (verified 20 January 2010).
  • Miller, S. A., F. Sahin, and R. C. Rowe. 1996. Black rot of crucifers. Extension fact sheet HYG-3125-96. The Ohio State University. Available online at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/3000/3125.html (verified 20 January 2010).
  • Miller, S. A., and M. L. Lewis Ivey. 2005. Hot water treatment of vegetable seeds to eradicate bacterial plant pathogens in organic production systems. Extension Fact sheet HYG-3086-05. The Ohio State University. Available online at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/3000/pdf/3086.pdf (verified 20 January 2010).
  • Williams, P. H. 1980. Black Rot: A continuing threat to world crucifers. Plant Disease 64: 736–742.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.
eOrganic 4957


http://www.infonet-biovision.org/res/res/files/488.OrgFarm.pdf

http://www.agricultureguide.org/importance-of-organic-farming-in-terms-of-food-safety




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Windows 7 Computer power on, startup, shut down log - Logging events


Windows 7 Computer power on, startup, shut down log - Logging events

You must be logged on as an administrator to perform these steps. If you aren't logged on as an administrator, you can change only settings that apply to your user account, and some event logs might not be accessible.
Event logs are special files that record significant events on your computer, such as when a user logs on to the computer or when a program encounters an error. Whenever these types of events occur, Windows records the event in an event log that you can read by using Event Viewer. Advanced users might find the details in event logs helpful when troubleshooting problems with Windows and other programs.
Event Viewer tracks information in several different logs. Windows Logs include:
  • Application (program) events. Events are classified as errorwarning, or information, depending on the severity of the event. An error is a significant problem, such as loss of data. A warning is an event that isn't necessarily significant, but might indicate a possible future problem. An information event describes the successful operation of a program, driver, or service.
  • Security-related events. These events are called audits and are described as successful or failed depending on the event, such as whether a user trying to log on to Windows was successful.
  • Setup events. Computers that are configured as domain controllers will have additional logs displayed here.
  • System events. System events are logged by Windows and Windows system services, and are classified as error, warning, or information.
  • Forwarded events. These events are forwarded to this log by other computers.
Applications and Services Logs vary. They include separate logs about the programs that run on your computer, as well as more detailed logs that pertain to specific Windowsservices.
  1. Open Event Viewer by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clickingSystem and Security, clicking Administrative Tools, and then double-clickingEvent Viewer.‌ Administrator permission required If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
  2. Click an event log in the left pane.
  3. Double-click an event to view the details of the event.


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Monday, June 11, 2012

Password to Open Excel 2007 or 2010 Workbook the Easy Way


 This can come in handy when you want to password protect Excel but this doesn’t stop someone for looking at your your Excel file. That can be quite a problem if you don’t want them stealing your information since they can still open the file and make a copy of the data regardless of the password. Here is how to  stop them from even looking at your precious Excel file by by requiring a password to open Excel 2007 or 2010 workbook.

Before we begin you are probably wondering why you would want to password protect Excel or require a password to open an Excel workbook. This is a really simple question, to protect the data you have in your workbooks. This could mean formatting or just sensitive data like people names, social security numbers, and other personal information. Here is a good explanation of what sensitive data is. If your data meets one of these requirements I highly recommend protecting your files.

How to Require a Password to Open Excel


Launch Excel 2010 or 2007 and open the file you want to protect. Either go to the office button or the File drop down. In Excel 2010 go to the Info menu item, for Excel 2007 go to Prepare, and find the Encrypt with Password.




You will be asked to enter a password in. Remember they are case sensitive and if you lose your password it will be hard to recover.





After you’ve reentered your password save your document and try to open it.



Nothing better than a locked down Excel file. If you want to remove it, simply go back to Encrypt with password and clear the password and click ok and save.

Now that you are down you now have complete control if someone tries to open the file and steal your data.




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Arshad Pathan


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